Vol 14, No 2 (2020)


Bioethics in a “remote format” or removed bioethics?

Sedova N.N.


The active transition to digital civilization coincided with the pandemic of the new coronavirus. It can be assumed that it was the pandemic that accelerated this process. In any case, people immediately faced to new phenomena, which can affect both physical and social health. Many phenomena, including both digitalization and pandemic, have not been explained and properly assessed yet. Absence of proper explanation and assessment creates a fertile field for insurance, doubts and mistakes. Therefore at the present time the evaluative and explanatory role of bioethics is invaluable. But a paradoxical situation arises: the more bioethics help is needed, the less attention is paid to its development. The transfer of bioethics study for medical students into a distance format eliminates its communicative meanings and deprives future doctors of the opportunity to develop skills and competencies in medicine. Something must be done in order not to lose the achievements of the national training system in the field of bioethics. Certain suggestions are expressed in the article.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):4-5
pages 4-5 views

Medical ethics revisited (historical reconstruction based on complementary discourses)

Semenova E.G., Cheremushnikova I.K.


Reliable reconstruction of historical - cultural past, including the past related to medical culture, remains an important methodological task. However, most documents and materials traditionally used for such reconstructions are often "mythologems", influenced by official ideology. Inevitably, the historical-cultural context is replaced by the historical-clinical one. The researcher is transferred from the field of culture to the space of professional constructions that impoverish our ideas about such elusive phenomena as medical ethics, body practices, attitudes to illness and health. The article substantiates the possibility of using literary texts as complementary discourses for such reconstructions. Important topics in the development of medicine can be clarified using literary reflection.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):6-8
pages 6-8 views

Ethical interaction of three elements of medicine during COVID-19

Kubar O.I.


The humanitarian idea underlying this article is to attempt an epidemiological interpretation of the classic Hippocratic triad "Medicine consists of three elements: the disease, the patient and the doctor". In the XIII century, the Syrian doctor Abul-Faraj in his saying: "Look, there are three of us - you, me, and the disease. If you are on my side, it will be easier for the two of us to defeat her. But, if you go over to her side, I alone will not be able to defeat you both" deciphered the magical meaning of these words. For centuries, the fundamental integrity of this formula has been an ethical and professional guarantee of the success of each patient's treatment and the prospect of building a personalized healthcare system. In this particular article, we have searched for new content of three key elements of the textbook aphorism in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. An understanding of the role of the doctor - "I" as the whole complex of efforts aimed at fighting the pandemic. Patient status "You" means the whole society during a pandemic, and even is as a long-term message for the physical, mental, social and geopolitical health of future generations. The meaning of "Disease" should be understood from the perspective of the problems of the entire health system and logistical ignorance, which has become an obstacle to achieving ethical integrity in managing epidemic challenges. The paper shows how adherence to the ethical principles of social responsibility, trust, and solidarity should become the moral accompaniment of the entire complex of sanitary, anti-epidemic, economic, legal, and social technologies that can ensure success in the fight against the pandemic and prevent the development of unjustified risks.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):9-14
pages 9-14 views

Cross-cultural communication in medical settings

Zhura V.V., Utesheva A.P.


Today there is a strong tendency to incorporate the bioethical principle of social justice in healthcare in cross-cultural communication. Considering cultural differences makes it possible to ensure that the human right to medical care and wellbeing is fully respected. Several types of most vulnerable populations were identified - immigrants and social minorities. When seeking medical care they face a number of problems such as culture and language barriers, lower socio-economic status, lack of literacy, which impede effective communication and care provision. The most promising ways of coping with the problem are developing cultural competence and practicing a patient-centered approach. New curricula aiming at raising cultural awareness have been elaborated for practical use in medical schools.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):14-17
pages 14-17 views

Medical Science and Bioethics (Narekatsi in Frames of Bioethics Curriculum)

Davtyan S.


In this article we analyse the ideas of outstanding Armenian thinker of X century Gregory of Narek and their connection with ideas of V. Potter. The power of Narek as a remedy for diseases is explained also by the viewpoint of Word Remedy.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):17-20
pages 17-20 views

Ancient assumptions of contemporary considerations of nature, life and non-human living beings

Kaluderovic Z.


Advocates of the questioning of the dominant anthropocentric perspective of the world have been increasingly strongly presenting (bio)ethical demands for a new solution of the relationship between humans and other beings, saying that adherence to the Western philosophical and theological traditions has caused the current environmental, and not just environmental, crisis. The attempts are being made to establish a new relationship by relativizing the differences between man and the non-human living beings, often by attributing specifically human traits and categories, such as dignity, moral status and rights to non-human living beings. The author explores antecedents of the standpoints that deviate from the mainstream Western philosophy, in terms of non-anthropocentric extension of ethics, and finds them in the fragments of first physicists, which emphasize kinship of all varieties of life. Pythagoras, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Democritus, in this context, considered certain animals and plants as sacred, i.e. they believed that they are, in a sense, responsible for what they do and that they apart from being able to be driven by a natural desire, being able to breathe, feel, be sad and happy, also have a soul, power of discernment, awareness, the ability to think, understanding and mind. Finally, the author believes that solutions or mitigation of the mentioned crisis are not in the simple Aesopeian levelling of animals and plants "upwards", but in an adequate paideutic approach which in humans will develop an inherent (bio)ethical model of accepting non-human living beings as creatures who deserve moral and decent treatment and respect.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):21-28
pages 21-28 views

Ethical and legal problems caused by COVID-19 pandemic

Petrov A.V., Donika D.A.


In the article these are considered ethical and legal problems caused by the ongoing pandemic of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). New challenges for health care, economy, education not only revealed rather a high level of stability and mobility, but also showed a poor readiness of response to sudden risks, which had a certain impact on all spheres of life of the whole society. The authors have conducted a brief cross-cultural analysis of the issue basing on data quoted by the international network of UNESCO chairs in bioethics, sessions of the Bioethics Committee within the RF Commission on UNESCO affairs, as well as official open sources of the health care system and judicial sphere of the Russian Federation. Strong reciprocal link of legal risks in the interdisciplinary field of medicine and law are made discernable: on the one hand, introduction of sanitary and hygienic regulations (using of personal protection gear, sanitary processing, maintaining social distance, etc.) are aimed at the realization of the right of protecting the health, while on the other hand they represent a violation of basic human rights. Besides the theoretical approach to the problem of the observance of the constitutional rights of citizens in the pandemic conditions there exists a real threat of their violation due to absence of special mechanisms of their realization in frames of sanitary and hygienic measures with regard to the vulnerable and socially disadvantaged sections in the society. It is made conclusion about necessity of the international collaboration for the purpose of joint decision-making and action in the sphere of health care taking into account an international character of ethical and legal challenges triggered by COVID-19 pandemic, as well as national, economic, cultural and confessional peculiarities.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):29-32
pages 29-32 views

Development tendencies of the inclusive education system at higher medical school: adaptation, maintenance, professional readiness

Zholudova A.N., Os'kin D.N., Polyakova O.V., Vershinin E.G.


This article considers the issues of adaptation and organization of the educational process, barrier-free environment and readiness for professional activity of students with disabilities in inclusive education in conditions of inclusive education in a medical university. The relevance of this work is determined by one of the priority areas of state policy in the field of higher education - access to higher education for people with disabilities in inclusive education. Inclusive education at the university is designed to ensure not only the realization of the right of students with disabilities in inclusive education to higher education, but also to solve the problems of socialization and professional demand for such people. In order to improve the process of introducing inclusive education at the Ryazan State Medical University named after Academician I.P. Pavlov, a study was conducted, the main problems and ways of solving them were identified, related to the organization of the educational process, the conditions of the barrier-free environment and the readiness for professional activity of students with disabilities in inclusive education. An increase in the proportion of university teachers who have undergone advanced training in inclusive education also contributes to solving problems. Adaptation of educational programs and educational and methodological support for persons with disabilities includes psychological, pedagogical and tutor support etc. The organization of the educational process using distance education technologies is one of the priority conditions for teaching students with disabilities and/or HIA. The use of this technology makes it possible to significantly expand and modify some educational standards for students with disabilities in inclusive education, namely, to create an individual way for each student with disabilities in inclusive education in a medical university. It is proposed to use training techniques such as: online consultation of teachers; VR technologies; availability of training materials 24/7; online webinars that facilitate the inclusion of such students in the educational and research activities of the university. The professionally organized educational space and educational process of the university provide not only a high level of mastery of professional competencies, but also contribute to the formation of personal qualities of students with disabilities in inclusive education, necessary for their successful socialization, life and activity in society.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):32-38
pages 32-38 views

Psychological care for children with autism: bioethical problems in the conditions of the pandemic

Volchansky M.Y., Delarue V.V., Boluchevskaya V.V., Raevsky A.A.


Comparison of the opinions working with the children of psychologists of Volgograd region concerning the provision of psychological assistance to children with early childhood autism in the 10-year interval (2009-2019) showed the ongoing institutionalization of this social practice, although not intensive enough. However, the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in early 2020, made it virtually impossible to provide psychological support to children with the disorder, due to numerous factual and subjective factors. It was concluded that regional medical and social services needed to be particularly proactive in providing support to vulnerable categories of persons (in particular, with regard to psychological support for children with early childhood autism).
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):39-41
pages 39-41 views

Advertising and sponsorship activities in the field of physical education, sports and the Olympic movement

Mandrikov V.B., Zamyatina N.V., Zubarev Y.A., Komleva L.A., Vakalova L.G., Vinichenko A.A.


The level of development of advertising and sponsorship activities in Russia is still significantly inferior to Western countries, but every year we see tremendous development in this area. Sponsorship is not mostly considered as an investment and marketing communication yet, but rather as a charity. This approach, according to the authors, is more consistent with philanthropy. In this regard, the article defines the concepts of "sponsorship" and "philanthropy", shows the difference between them. Examples of interaction between sports organizations and sponsors are considered. The role of advertising in this interaction is analyzed. According to the authors, Russia has a good legal framework for regulating the relations of sponsors, patrons, athletes and fans, but the system of ethical control of such relations is poorly developed.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):42-45
pages 42-45 views

Features of "relevant" changes in medical students appearance

Hudina J.S., Koichuev A.G., Tutova Z.O., Pshunov T.S.


In a modern democratic society appearance has great importance. This is especially true of the dress code in health care sphere. More recently, changing your appearance by getting tattoos and body modifications has been decried by different generations in the medical community. However, what is significance of appearance of a medical officer during epidemiological instability around the world? The response to this question was given in our study. The objectives of the study are: to interrogate the attitude of medical university students to medical officers with tattoos as well as to identify medical students who are "exposed" to the fashionable trend of tattoos and body modifications. To implement these objectives, the study involved 106 medical students of various levels of degree and faculties of Rostov state medical University. The results of the study showed that the majority of medical students has not resorted to changes in their appearance, although tattoos and body modifications did not avoid the community of medical students
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):46-49
pages 46-49 views

Ethical and psychological collisions on referral of VIII type institutions leavers to nursing homes for chronic mental patients

Delarue V.V., Kondratyev G.V., Shutova O.I., Guba T.I.


Former research showed that up to 20-25 % of those who leave schools of type VIII (schools for children with cognitive development disorders) are referred to nursery homes for chronic mental patients not due to medical problems but because of social ones. According to the authors’ opinion, such social practice has more positive than negative aspects. However, this issue requires extensive discussions. Organizing special post-diploma training courses of 16-24 hours on ethical-psychological aspects of referral various categories of patients (not only leavers of type VIII institutions) to nursery homes for chronic mental patients also seems to be reasonable.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):50-52
pages 50-52 views

The fragment of research the quality of life and professional burnout of doctors in children's polyclinics in Volgograd

Slivina L.P., Morozov M.E., Khaydukova A.A., Kalinchenko E.I., Fedotova I.V.


The level of medical care to patients and the success of the implementation of the national project "Health" depend on the health status and doctor's professionalism. Modern healthcare reform is being implemented by optimizing costs, merging medical organizations, closing ineffective hospitals, expanding the use of high-tech care and informatization of the doctor's activities. All this makes it necessary to assess the health of doctors. Scientists have studied the quality of life and identified the professional (emotional) burnout of doctors in children's clinics in different age groups. Primary care pediatricians have a higher quality of life score when compared to the standard [1]. However, all groups have a high level of professional burnout. The pre-retirement group of doctors has more unfavorable profile. They are highly professional specialists but may experience emotional discomfort because the pension system has been reformed. This situation requires the introduction of preventive work with doctors of this age as a group with great potential and capable of professional longevity.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):52-57
pages 52-57 views

Celebration of the World Bioethics Day in the Volgograd state medical university

Donika A.D., Strelchenko A.S., Soloviev N.V.


The article presents the results of research activities which were undertaken in Volgograd Medical University to celebrate the World Bioethics Day. The theme of scientific events organized on the basis of the Department of Bioethics, Philosophy and Medical Law with a course of the sociology of medicine with the participation of the Department of Ethical, Legal and Sociological Expertise in Medicine of Volgograd Medical Scientific Center is “Benefit and Harm”. The article presents the Program of holding a scientific online conference with international participation and the results of the essay competition among students and young scientists.
Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):58-60
pages 58-60 views


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Bioethics journal. 2020;14(2):61-62
pages 61-62 views

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